teacher training

Policy Dialogue British Council

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BC Policy dialogue

Dicen que más vale tarde que nunca, así que con un ‘poquitín’ de retraso, aquí van mis conclusiones de mi asistencia al Policy Dialogue organizado por el British Council y la Universidad de Alcalá a principios de febrero con el título: Formación continua del profesorado: modelos de éxito e implicaciones para la enseñanza AICLE. Let’s go!

 

 

 

 

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To be or not to be? Enseñanza bilingüe en Educación Infantil

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La implantación de los programas bilingües en España se ha centrado generalmente en la etapa de la educación primaria. Sin embargo, muchos docentes reclamaban que la inmersión se adelantara a la educación infantil, cuando los niños y niñas están más receptivos al aprendizaje de lenguas adicionales y están comenzando a desarrollar sus destrezas lectoescritoras. El pasado 28 de octubre la Consejería de Educación de la Comunidad de Madrid anunció su intención de implantar la enseñanza bilingüe en centros públicos de educación infantil en la etapa de 3 a 6 años. En este post os cuento cómo se presentó el proyecto, mi opinión sobre esta iniciativa y más. Let’s go!

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Working Out Loud: Compartiendo mis retos docentes 16-17

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No estaría siendo muy honesta si, después de haber publicado mi anterior post, no os contara cuáles son mis retos docentes de este curso. En realidad tengo unos cuantos, y después de saber que si aplico la técnica #WorkingOutLoud tengo la posibilidad de encontrar personas con las que compartir mis inquietudes y avanzar juntos, llega la hora de ponerlos sobre la pantalla. ¿Compartimos retos? #TTTEACHwol

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El papel de la emoción o en busca de la C perdida

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El otro día leía en Twitter una noticia relativa a una publicación educativa que aseguraba que la neuroeducación está validando la extendida opinión de que el aprendizaje está determinado fundamentalmente por la emoción. “¡Noticias frescas!”, exclamé. Sin embargo, me di cuenta de que, aunque esto sea obvio para cualquier docente en su quehacer diario en el aula, no lo es para el conjunto del sistema educativo, ya que carecemos de la cobertura y herramientas para aprovechar al máximo este descubrimiento.

Echando la vista atrás, no fue hasta las décadas de los 60/70 cuando la psicología y la pedagogía se dieron la mano y se reforzó el ‘lado emocional’ de la educación. En la enseñanza de idiomas adicionales fue en esta época cuando se promulgaron métodos tan curiosos como  la “Suggestopedia”. Su propulsor, un egipcio llamado Caleb Gattegno, aseguraba que era necesario ‘desugestionar’ al sujeto antes de que pudiera realizar un aprendizaje efectivo. Para ello, se ayudaba de música barroca, textos leídos a media voz, sofás y una luz tenue. Si esto es parece bizarro, imaginaos la cara que pondrían ellos al vernos todo el día frente a una pantalla iluminada.  ¿Hemos perdido la emoción en nuestra sociedad?

Francisco Mora, catedrático de Fisiología Humana en la Universidad Complutense, y catedrático adscrito de Fisiología Molecular y Biofísica en la Universidad de Iowa, EEUU, aporta algo de luz a mi pregunta. En su colaboración con Carlos Arroyo en el blog de sociedad de El País apunta a la definitiva unión del binomio “Cognición-Emoción“. Para ser más exactos, “Emoción-Cognición“, ya que el cerebro primero pasa la información por la emoción y luego por la cognición, según sus palabras. Así pues, la emoción es inherente al ser humano en todo proceso cognitivo. (¡Qué interesante!) Además va más allá, asegurando que aprendemos para sobrevivir, y que, por tanto, el que aprende menos suele vivir menos. Tener una mente abierta al aprendizaje, y por ende, a la emoción, nos hace estar más capacitados para la supervivencia.

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¿Pero cómo podemos llevar todo esto a las aulas? ¿Cómo podemos potenciar el lado emocional del aprendizaje para hacerlo más duradero y útil? Marta Palomar, del Instituto Superior de Estudios Psicológicos, nos da algunas claves que intentaré analizar aquí. Para empezar, parece obvio que cada etapa de nuestra vida tiene diferentes momentos de aprendizaje. Es decir, no se trata de que cuanto mayor nos hacemos, menos aprendemos, sino que tenemos picos de actividad, y algunos periodos son más activos que otros. Así pues, debemos cuidar de que los niños tengan entornos que favorezcan el aprendizaje desde etapas tempranas. Para poder conseguirlo tenemos que favorecer el contacto de los niños con la naturaleza, y favorecer el movimiento físico. Esta es una metodología muy común en países como Finlandia y Alemania, por ejemplo, y en centros de carácter experimental-innovador como las escuelas-bosque.

De acuerdo con Palomar, el sistema se vuelve menos sensible a las necesidades emocionales de los estudiantes según estos van creciendo. De manera que cuando el cerebro ya tiene pleno potencial emocional, por así decirlo, es cuando los estudiantes son expuestos a materias de corte racional (y Palomar cita la biología y la física, por ejemplo). Admito que no estoy del todo de acuerdo con esta idea, ya que considero que estas materias no son racionales ‘per se’, sino que depende de la manera en la que se enfoque la asignatura. Esa es la impresión que tengo de lo que veo en mi día a día en el Centro Universitario Cardenal Cisneros. Conozco a profesores de asignaturas de corte científico que realizan numerosas actividades que acercan a los estudiantes los contenidos y ayudan a desarrollar las competencias a través de la experiencia (y por tanto, de la emoción). Otra cosa es que el currículo escolar o los materiales didácticos utilizados pasen por alto esta dimensión, o que hayamos cometido el error de meter las asignaturas en ciertos compartimentos estancos (el aprendizaje no sabe de cajones).

Exactamente pasa lo mismo con la aplicación de CLIL. En diversas ocasiones os he comentado que creo que la utilización de las 4 Cs: Contenido, Comunicación, Cultura y Cognición, ayudan al profesor a desarrollar actividades y herramientas que ayudan al estudiante a realizar un aprendizaje efectivo. Sin embargo, nos faltaba subrayar que en esa palabra mágica: “Cognición”, está también escondida, como la otra cara de la moneda, la “Emoción”. Quizás ésta sea la C perdida, el quinto elemento del entramado CLIL. No podemos enseñar en una lengua adicional si pasamos por alto la ’emoción’, y para buscar la ’emoción’ de chavales que rondan los veinte años hay que dar, desde mi punto de vista, un paso previo: conocerlos, escucharlos, observarlos. Aquí os doy algunas ideas que me han servido para trabajar aspectos emocionales en el aula:

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Write a letter to your students and ask them to do the same. Ask them about their hobbies, their families, their worries and their expectations on the subject you’re teaching or on the degree in general. Te permitirán, además, saber el nivel inicial de lengua de tus alumnos, y conocerás cuáles son las áreas en las que puedes trabajar. Si alguien comparte sus talentos artísticos, deportivos, etc., tenlos en cuenta para las actividades que vayas a desarrollar. Deja espacio para que puedan integrar sus habilidades a la par que llevan a cabo las tareas de clase ¡les ayudarán!

Create student cards with ‘unusual’ categories such as your most embarrasing  moment, or the happiest day in your life. Geniales para revisar el uso de tiempos verbales en pasado. Se pueden organizar con algo de “scaffolding” utilizando la estructura 1,2,3,4 de Aprendizaje Cooperativo. Primero trabajan individualmente, luego comparten en parejas, después en pequeños grupos, y finalmente con el grupo entero. Puedes organizar un Talk Show sobre el tema.

Use poetry, songs or short short stories to discuss on a particular issue seen in class. No olvidéis la literatura, por favor. Si estáis trabajando sobre biología o física, hay relatos recopilados en antologías editadas por Isaac Asimov que son una maravilla (fáciles de leer, y con un montón de potencial para debatir en clase). Recopila materiales que puedan unirse al temario de tu currículum para tenerlos a mano. Para poemas sobre cualquier tema, recomiendo los volúmenes escritos o editados por Pie Corbett.

Use drama-based activities, such as describing an initial scene, and inviting students to imagine what they would do in that situation, and write a dialogue to perfom the scene. No sé qué haría sin mis drama-based techniques. Crear diálogos que respondan a situaciones concretas es una técnica que podéis emplear en cualquier asignatura. Si no habéis trabajado con guiones de teatro antes, incluir una fase previa en la que los estudiantes puedan familiarizarse con el género. Una buena fuente de ideas es la página de Dominic Streames, efltheatreclub.

Espero que el post os haya resultado interesante. No dudéis en comentar 🙂 See you next time!

My report on… XXXIX Aedean Conference

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Hi everybody!

I’m back to comment on the 39th Aedean Conference held at the Universidad de Deusto, in Bilbao (Basque Country). I was delighted to attend this conference in such a beautiful place. And to top things off, the weather was absolutely fantastic.  The Conference ran from 11th to 13th November and, as always, I participated in the Language Teaching and Acquisition Section, coordinated by Prof. Francisco Gallardo del Puerto (Universidad de Cantabria).

My participation revolved around students’ perceptions and concerns on the use of CLIL in Teacher Education Degrees. This study saw the participation of forty-three  4th year students from our bilingual Primary and Infant Teacher Education degrees. Information was gathered using a questionnaire and focus-groups. Our main aim was to find an answer to the question: “Do students consider that taking the bilingual itinerary adds value to their training?” The main findings were quite revealing: 100% of the participants stated that they would choose the bilingual itinerary if given the opportunity. They also perceived that they had learned more contents, competences and didactic strategies solely due to following this itinerary.

Apart from this, the students’ comments reinforce some conclusions drawn from a previous study, with students from previous academic years. These findings, presented at Franklin Institute (2014), lead us to think that the implementation of CLIL may enhance students’ growth mindset (Dweck). If this is the case, CLIL will not only help attain better language proficiency in an additional language and good-quality teaching-learning methods, techniques and strategies, but will also have an influence on how students envision their own learning capacity.

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An infographic on Growth Mindset vs. Fixed Mindset. Source: https://blogthenewcenturyschool.files.wordpress.com/2014/03/nigel-holmes-graphic.jpg

There were some common aspects among the variety of topics presented in the sessions:

– interest in knowing how L1 positively or negatively influences L2 and to what extent this impacts and interferes with L3, L4, ETC.

I was not at all surprised, as this was a topic of interest when I was studying my degree (a long time ago now), and is still a matter of controversy. Why do elements which are similar in L1 become problematic when using L2? This issue has now expanded to a new scenario: speakers of three or more languages, as shown in the studies by Gutiérrez-Mangado & Martínez Adrián and Llinàs-Grau & Puig Mayenco. There is an interest in discovering whether learning one language helps the acquisition of specific language structures in other languages. However, to my surprise, Cummins was not mentioned at all. “Is the Interdependence Hypothesis out of fashion now?” I wondered.

– some talks aimed to describe the effect of task repetition in language acquisition.

I found this quite intriguing. It seems that some teachers have discovered that, if students are exposed to the same task time after time, the language used in the task tends to be more correct and the use of L1 is reduced. Also, it appears that when students are familiar with the content and procedure, they can focus on language. This suggests that they need to organise things first, and then they can pay attention to meaning.

It is evident that there is a cognitive component here. However, the word ‘cognition’ was barely used when dealing with these types of studies. It is necessary to make a stronger link between language and cognition. It is essential to have a look at the Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency (CALP) of participants, and their ability to use High Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) to discover whether cognitive demands and cognitive level are influencing these results.

–  CLIL as a context and as a pedagogical approach

As I put forward in my last post about AEDEAN Conferences, I was quite frustrated with the fact that schools were being labeled as CLIL whenever an additional language was used to teach content. My concern arose from a lack of distinction between schools embracing a methodological shift and those simply continuing a traditional approach. I mentioned this in my presentation to highlight that CLIL is not  just a context, but rather a pedagogical approach which has certain tenets. I insist on the need to distinguish bi-, tri-,and plurilingual contexts from CLIL contexts which are confirmed to be implementing a methodological change fostering the 4 Cs . That’s my view.

I also had the opportunity to talk to several speakers about this, and they told me I was right in indicating that CLIL should imply a methodological adaptation to a bilingual context. However, this was very difficult to prove in a ‘real’ study, as teachers were not willing to give information about their teaching practices. This leads me to the next point.

– Researchers admit having difficulties when obtaining information from schools

Even though this was not part of any of the sessions, the discussion came up when one person in the audience talked about his experience. Researchers have the feeling that teachers don’t want to cooperate with them, and therefore, it is virtually impossible to obtain information from real practical experience. In my view, this is completely true, but I can understand the teachers’ points of view, as they are bogged down by timetables, lots of paperwork, families and a myriad of children with different learning needs. Therefore, our point of view as researchers should be: what can I do for them in the short run? If we want this collaboration to happen, we must think about how we can help them to work better, and how they can collaborate with our universities. See for example how Celaya and Panelli, participating in this conference, mentioned how they had changed their questionnaires because teachers had spotted several difficulties in the original model. Personally, I’ve had school teachers talking in my lessons, and these have been rewarding not only for them, but also for me and my students. A different kind of relationship, beyond “just giving information or data”, must be established for the benefit of both parties.

– Culture: towards transculturality

The 4th C, Culture, has been the main topic of several of my posts on this blog. As you know, simply put, I consider that an English teacher should not limit his/her lessons to show how English people or American people live, their traditions, beliefs and celebrations. I believe that if English has become an International Language (EIL), it is also a tool to access any culture. In that sense, one of the speakers, Karen Jacob, mentioned the need to adopt the term “Transcultural” to denote how you can learn from and interact with different cultures. In her words, it gives a sense of “multidirectional movement”. In this context, Clavel-Arroitia and Pennock-Speck presented an interesting study involving telecollaboration between two high-schools located in Spain and Poland.

 

I hope this quick review is both informative and interesting. I’d love to read your comments.

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Me in beautiful and sunny Bilbao 🙂

I’d like to thank James Crichlow and Carolina Benito for revising the original version of this post. Thanks for all your suggestions!

New Postgraduate Course: Expert in CLIL – Virtual Learning

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After one hard year of work, I’m pleased to announce that I’ll be co-directing a new postgraduate course: Expert in Content and Language Integrated Learning. This academic programme is focused on improving teachers’ profiles to cope with bilingual education contexts by using the CLIL pedagogical approach. The Course is on-line with 3 optional face-to-face sessions which will take place on Campus. It will run from February to June, and it is composed by 24 ECTS. Participants will take three compulsory subjects to establish the fundamentals of the teaching-learning process using CLIL, and they will have the chance to choose 3 optional subjects, which deal with topics such as Social Sciences, Arts, Science, Using Stories, Classroom Management, or Coordinating a Bilingual Project (this last subject will have a face-to-face module which will take place in Madrid).

Offering this postgraduate course is not a matter of chance, our University College has been training teachers to offer Bilingual Degrees for 10 years now, and I have been coordinating the methodological training of teachers from 2008. Also, lecturers participating in the Expert Teaching Staff are well experienced in the implementation of CLIL in their classrooms, and many of them are involved in research projects which revolve around bilingual education and CLIL.

 If you are interested in obtaining more information about this Postgraduate Course, you can visit our webpage (information in English will be available soon), and/or contact me via email: raquel.fernandez@cardenalcisneros. Thank you all in advance for spreading the word.

Cardenal Cisneros University College offers an Expert in CLIL Postgraduate Course - Campus
Cardenal Cisneros University College offers an Expert in CLIL Postgraduate Course. Source of Photo: http://www.cardenalcisneros.es

 

Wall of Fame -Nursery Rhymes

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Hi everybody! As part of my teaching challenges this academic year, I’m carrying out a project using blogs with a group of students. They are taking the subject “Exploring Children’s literature” in English as part of their curriculum to become Primary Teachers. This group is taking the bilingual itinerary our institution is offering since 2010, and they are about to finish their studies (next June). As part of this project, and every two weeks, I will be publishing the most interesting post I’ve read here. It is what I’ve called “The Wall of Fame” for my students.

The Wall of Fame is happy to welcome Sonsoles Torres, one of my students, who has written a really interesting post on Nursery Rhymes. We worked on Nursery Rhymes in class, and we discovered that many of them have a hidden message. Legend or truth? Who knows! All we know is that nursery rhymes are great resources to help students practise vocabulary, and pronunciation, and Sonsoles is sharing a nice video she produced in class while presenting “Ring a ring of roses” with her classmates.
Sonsoles’ post is available here

Congrats!